Available Resources

The level of resources dedicated for implementation and on-going operations, including money, training, education, physical space, and time.  

The level of resources dedicated for implementation and ongoing operations including money, training, education, physical space, and time [1][2][3][4][5][6] is positively associated with implementation [7][8][9][10][11][12], but not necessarily sufficient to guarantee success [13]. Financial resources acts as a partial mediator between management support (see Leadership Engagement) and implementation policy and procedures [14]. Organizations may have “slack resources” that allow people to “squeeze” time for adopting an implementation on top of what they are already doing without noticeably impacting another area. Slack resources are thought to promote absorptive capacity because of the increased ability to absorb failure [15][16]. Though, in a meta-analysis of several studies slack resources was not a significant influence, perhaps because of the lack of distinction between different types of slack resources [15].

Inclusion Criteria

Include statements related to the presence or absence of the resources described above or resources specific to the innovation that is being implemented.

  • “The last hospital director signed an MOU, promising a ½ FTE to be the coordinator to get this practice in but that never materialized. Even when we showed the new director the signed MOU, he didn’t do anything.” The latter statement would be double-coded with Leadership Engagement.
  • “We’ve outgrown the space allotted for group visits and now we’re trying to figure out what we can do – the room we have is way too small.”
  • “I took this position on top of all my other duties. My supervisor did not reduce my clinic allocations to do this so I just squeeze it in when I can.”
  • “I wrote a proposal for the VISN, asking for 1 FTE for each of the sites and they approved it. We’re very excited.”

Exclusion Criteria

Exclude statements related to training and code to Access to Knowledge and Information.

Exclude statements related to the quality of materials and code to Design Quality & Packaging.

Maria Fernandez and colleagues developed 7 items related to Available Resources. Measures are available for review here. For permission to use, please contact Dr. Fernandez at: Maria.E.Fernandez at uth-dot-tmc-dot-edu

Also, check out SIRC’s Instrument Review project and published systematic review protocol, which has cataloged over 400 implementation-related measures. 

Note: As we become aware of measures, we will post them here. Please contact us with updates.

  1. Greenhalgh T, Robert G, Macfarlane F, Bate P, Kyriakidou O: Diffusion of innovations in service organizations: systematic review and recommendations. Milbank Q 2004, 82:581-629.
  2. Gustafson DH, Sainfort F, Eichler M, Adams L, Bisognano M, Steudel H: Developing and testing a model to predict outcomes of organizational change. Health Serv Res 2003, 38:751-776.
  3. Edmondson AC, Bohmer RM, Pisana GP: Disrupted routines: Team learning and new technology implementation in hospitals. Adm Sci Q 2001, 46:685-716.
  4. Simpson DD, Dansereau DF: Assessing Organizational Functioning as a Step Toward Innovation. NIDA Science & Practice Perspectives 2007, 3:20-28.
  5. Fitzgerald LE, Wood FM, Hawkins C: Interlocking Interactions: the Diffusion of Innovations in Health Care. Human Relations 2002, 55:1429-1449.
  6. Weiner BJ, Savitz LA, Bernard S, Pucci LG: How do integrated delivery systems adopt and implement clinical information systems? Health Care Manage Rev 2004, 29:51(16):.
  7. Rabin BA, Brownson RC, Haire-Joshu D, Kreuter MW, Weaver NL: A glossary for dissemination and implementation research in health. J Public Health Manag Pract 2008, 14:117-123.
  8. Denis JL, Hebert Y, Langley A, Lozeau D, Trottier LH: Explaining diffusion patterns for complex health care innovations.’ Health Care Manage Rev 2002, 27:60-73.
  9. Perrin KM, Burke SG, O’Connor D, Walby G, Shippey C, Pitt S, McDermott RJ, Forthofer MS: Factors contributing to intervention fidelity in a multi-site chronic disease selfmanagement program. Implement Sci 2006, 1:26.
  10. Leeman J, Baernholdt M, Sandelowski M: Developing a theory-based taxonomy of methods for implementing change in practice. J Adv Nurs 2007, 58:191-200.
  11. Pronovost PJ, Berenholtz SM, Goeschel CA, Needham DM, Sexton JB, Thompson DA, Lubomski LH, Marsteller JA, Makary MA, Hunt E: Creating high reliability in health care organizations. Health Serv Res2006, 41:1599-1617.
  12. Meyers PW, Sivakumar K, Nakata C: Implementation of Industrial Process Innovations: Factors, Effects, and Marketing Implications. Journal of Product Innovation Management 1999, 16:295-311.
  13. Stetler CB: Updating the Stetler Model of research utilization to facilitate evidencebased practice. Nurs Outlook 2001, 49:272-279.
  14. Klein KJ, Conn AB, Sorra JS: Implementing computerized technology: An organizational analysis. J Appl Psychol 2001, 86:811-824.
  15. Damanpour F: Organizational Innovation: A Meta-Analysis of Effects of Determinants and Moderators. The Academy of Management Journal 1991, 34:555-590.
  16. Singh J, Lumsden CJ: Theory and research in organizational ecology. Annual Review of Sociology 1990, 16:161-195.