Implementation Facilitators

Individuals with subject matter expertise who assist, coach, or support implementation.

Implementation Facilitators are individuals with subject matter expertise who assist, mentor, coach, or support implementation (S. N. Smith et al., 2020). The original CFIR elaborated further, stating that the PARiHS framework describes facilitators who are task-oriented versus holistic, the latter approach being valued more highly than the former (Rycroft-Malone, Kitson, et al., 2002). Ideally, “the role of the appropriately prepared facilitator, along with the team(s) they are working with, is to construct a programme of change that meets individual and team learning needs” (A. L. Kitson et al., 2008)(p 22). Implementation Facilitators may include any individual who provides guidance to the Implementation Leads or Teams (Ritchie et al., 2020; Solberg et al., 2021). Implementation Facilitators can play an integral role throughout implementation, formally influencing or facilitating innovation decisions in a desirable direction. External facilitators usually have professional training in a technical field related to organizational change science or in the technology being introduced into the organization (Ritchie et al., 2020). This role includes outside researchers who may be implementing a multi-site innovation study and other formally appointed individuals from the Outer Setting, e.g., a facilitator from a corporate or regional office or a hired consultant. Strong Implementation Facilitators have characteristics of empathy, curiosity, commitment, critical thinking, and advancing equity (Metz et al., 2020) and skills in five overarching areas: building relationships; changing processes; transferring knowledge and skills for continued learning; planning and leading; assessing people, process, and outcomes (see Characteristics) (Ritchie et al., 2020).

Qualitative coding guidelines that are aligned with the Updated CFIR will be added in the future.

As we become aware of measures, we will post them here. Please contact us with updates.

Kitson, A. L., Rycroft-Malone, J., Harvey, G., McCormack, B., Seers, K., & Titchen, A. (2008). Evaluating the successful implementation of evidence into practice using the PARIHS framework: Theoretical and practical challenges. Implement Sci, 3(1), 1.

Metz, A., Louison, L., Burke, K., & Ward, C. (2020). Implementation Support Practitioner Profile: Guiding principles and core competencies for implementation practice (p. 18). National Implementation Research Network.

Ritchie, M. J., Parker, L. E., & Kirchner, J. E. (2020). From novice to expert: A qualitative study of implementation facilitation skills. Implementation Science Communications, 1(1), 25.

Rycroft-Malone, J., Kitson, G., Harvey, B., McCormack, K., Seers, A. T., & C. Estabrooks. (2002). Ingredients for change: Revisiting a conceptual framework. (Viewpoint). Quality and Safety in Health Care, 11(2), 174–180.

Smith, S. N., Liebrecht, C. M., Bauer, M. S., & Kilbourne, A. M. (2020). Comparative effectiveness of external vs blended facilitation on collaborative care model implementation in slow‐implementer community practices. Health Services Research, 55(6), 954–965.

Solberg, L. I., Kuzel, A., Parchman, M. L., Shelley, D. R., Dickinson, W. P., Walunas, T. L., Nguyen, A. M., Fagnan, L. J., Cykert, S., Cohen, D. J., Balasubramanaian, B. A., Fernald, D., Gordon, L., Kho, A., Krist, A., Miller, W., Berry, C., Duffy, D., & Nagykaldi, Z. (2021). A Taxonomy for External Support for Practice Transformation. The Journal of the American Board of Family           Medicine, 34(1), 32–39.