Available Resources

Resources are available to implement and deliver the innovation. Note: Use this construct to capture themes related to Available Resources that are not included in the subconstructs below.

Provision of funding, space, and materials and equipment are key for implementation and delivery of the innovation (Ashok et al., 2018; Dy et al., 2015; Leeman et al., 2019). In addition, Flottorp et al.’s checklist for implementation lists availability of resources that include financial, facilities, equipment and supplies, (Flottorp et al., 2013). See Individuals: Characteristics: Opportunity for staffing allocations that are specific to implementing or delivering the innovation.

The original CFIR elaborated on Available Resources, stating that the level of resources dedicated for implementation is positively associated with implementation (Denis et al., 2002; Leeman et al., 2007; Meyers et al., 1999; Perrin et al., 2006; Pronovost et al., 2006; Rabin et al., 2008) but is not necessarily sufficient to guarantee success (Stetler, 2001).

Qualitative coding guidelines that are aligned with the Updated CFIR will be added in the future.

Exclusion Criteria

Exclude statements related to training and code to Access to Knowledge and Information.

Exclude statements related to the quality of materials and code to Design Quality & Packaging.

Regarding quantitative measurement of this construct: In a systematic review of quantitative measures related to implementation, Weiner et al. identified 19 measures (Weiner et al., 2020). Using PAPERS criteria of measurement quality with an aggregate scale ranging from -9 to +36 (Lewis, Mettert, Stanick, et al., 2021), 14 measures (73.68%) had sufficient information for assessment and scores ranged from -2 to +8. The Texas Christian University Program Training Needs Survey (Simpson, 2002) had the highest score. Results indicate the need for continued development of high-quality measures.

As we become aware of measures, we will post them here. Please contact us with updates.

Ashok, M., Hung, D., Rojas-Smith, L., Halpern, M. T., & Harrison, M. (2018). Framework for Research on Implementation of Process Redesigns: Quality Management in Health Care, 27(1), 17–23. https://doi.org/10.1097/QMH.0000000000000158.

Denis, J.-L., Hébert, Y., Langley, A., Lozeau, D., & Trottier, L.-H. (2002). Explaining Diffusion Patterns for Complex Health Care Innovations: Health Care Management Review, 27(3), 60–73. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004010-200207000-00007.

Dy, S. M., Ashok, M., Wines, R. C., & Rojas Smith, L. (2015). A Framework to Guide Implementation Research for Care Transitions Interventions: Journal for Healthcare Quality, 37(1), 41–54. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.JHQ.0000460121.06309.f9.

Flottorp, S. A., Oxman, A. D., Krause, J., Musila, N. R., Wensing, M., Godycki-Cwirko, M., Baker, R., & Eccles, M. P. (2013). A checklist for identifying determinants of practice: A systematic review and synthesis of frameworks and taxonomies of factors that prevent or enable improvements in healthcare professional practice. Implementation Science, 8(1), 35. https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-8-35.

Leeman, J., Baquero, B., Bender, M., Choy-Brown, M., Ko, L. K., Nilsen, P., Wangen, M., & Birken, S. A. (2019). Advancing the use of organization theory in implementation science. Preventive Medicine, 129, 105832. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.105832.

Leeman, J., Baernholdt, M., & Sandelowski, M. (2007). Developing a theory-based taxonomy of methods for implementing change in practice. J Adv Nurs, 58(2), 191–200.

Lewis, C. C., Mettert, K. D., Stanick, C. F., Halko, H. M., Nolen, E. A., Powell, B. J., & Weiner, B. J. (2021). The psychometric and pragmatic evidence rating scale (PAPERS) for measure development and evaluation. Implementation Research and Practice, 2, 263348952110373. https://doi.org/10.1177/26334895211037391.

Meyers, P. W., Sivakumar, K., & Nakata, C. (1999). Implementation of Industrial Process Innovations: Factors, Effects, and Marketing Implications. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 16(3), 295–311. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-5885.1630295.

Perrin, K. M., Burke, S. G., O’Connor, D., Walby, G., Shippey, C., Pitt, S., McDermott, R. J., & Forthofer, M. S. (2006). Factors contributing to intervention fidelity in a multi-site chronic disease self-management program. Implement Sci, 1, 26.

Pronovost, P. J., Berenholtz, S. M., Goeschel, C. A., Needham, D. M., Sexton, J. B., Thompson, D. A., Lubomski, L. H., Marsteller, J. A., Makary, M. A., & Hunt, E. (2006). Creating high reliability in health care organizations. Health Serv Res, 41(4 Pt 2), 1599–1617.

Rabin, B. A., Brownson, R. C., Haire-Joshu, D., Kreuter, M. W., & Weaver, N. L. (2008). A glossary for dissemination and implementation research in health. J Public Health Manag Pract, 14(2), 117–123.

Simpson, D. D. (2002). A conceptual framework for transferring research to practice. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 22(4), 171–182.

Stetler, C. B. (2001). Updating the Stetler Model of research utilization to facilitate evidence-based practice. Nursing Outlook, 49(6), 272–279.

Weiner, B. J., Mettert, K. D., Dorsey, C. N., Nolen, E. A., Stanick, C., Powell, B. J., & Lewis, C. C. (2020). Measuring readiness for implementation: A systematic review of measures’ psychometric and pragmatic properties. Implementation Research and Practice, 1, 263348952093389. https://doi.org/10.1177/2633489520933896.