You have come to the right place if you are looking for more information about the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). This site is created for individuals considering using the CFIR to evaluate an implementation or design an implementation study.

The CFIR was originally published in 2009 and was updated in 2022 based on user feedback. It will be helpful for new users to read the 2009 article first; specifically Background, Methods, and Overview of the CFIR. Then read the 2002 Updated CFIR article. This site is under construction. We are working on changing content on this site to reflect the updated CFIR. Please be patient while this is in process.

 

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The CFIR provides a menu of constructs that have been associated with effective implementation. The Updated CFIR builds on the 2009 version that included constructs from a range of 19 frameworks or related theories including Everett Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations Theory and Greenhalgh and colleagues’ compilation based on their review of 500 published sources across 13 scientific disciplines. The CFIR considered the spectrum of construct terminology and definitions and compiled them into one organizing framework.

The 2022 Updated CFIR draws on more recent literature and feedback from users.

As part of the update process, a CFIR Outcomes Addendum was published to establish conceptual distinctions between implementation and innovation outcomes and their potential determinants.

The CFIR provides a menu of constructs arranged across 5 domains that can be used in a range of applications. It a practical theory-based guide for systematically assessing potential barriers and facilitators to guide tailoring of implementation strategies and adaptations for the innovation being implemented and/or explain outcomes.

The CFIR was developed by implementation researchers affiliated with Veterans Affairs (VA) Diabetes Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI).

By providing a framework of constructs, the CFIR promotes consistent use of constructs, systematic analysis, and organization of findings from implementation studies. User must, however, critique the framework and publish recommendations to improve. This reciprocity is at the heart of building valid and useful theory. See Kislov et al’s call for researchers to engage in theoretically informative implementation research.

Drs. Powell, Proctor and Glass highlighted the benefits of using the CFIR to increase scientific knowledge about the effectiveness of implementation strategies:
  • “…while the CFIR’s utility as a framework to guide empirical research is not fully established, it is consistent with the vast majority of frameworks and conceptual models in dissemination and implementation research in its emphasis of multilevel ecological factors… Examining research (and real-world implementation efforts) through the lens of the CFIR gives us some indication of how comprehensively strategies address important aspects of implementation.”

The CFIR has most often been used within healthcare settings but has also been used across a diverse array of setting including low-income contexts and farming.

As of November 2022, the 2009 article was cited nearly 9000 times in Google Scholar and over 3700 times in PubMed