Individuals: The roles and characteristics of individuals.

This domain highlights the importance of the roles and characteristics of individuals involved with implementing, delivering, and/or receiving the innovation (Ashok et al., 2018; Barwick et al., 2020; Breimaier et al., 2015; Dy et al., 2015; Kerins et al., 2020; Moretto et al., 2019; Varsi et al., 2015).

Users may find it helpful to consider a matrix of roles and their characteristics; coding the relevant characteristics for each role enables users to explore differences in characteristics across types of roles, which is crucial for adapting implementation strategies and the innovation (see Process: Adapting).


Qualitative coding guidelines that are aligned with the Updated CFIR will be added in the future.

As we become aware of measures, we will post them here. Please contact us with updates.

Ashok, M., Hung, D., Rojas-Smith, L., Halpern, M. T., & Harrison, M. (2018). Framework for Research on Implementation of Process Redesigns: Quality Management in Health Care, 27(1), 17–23.

Barwick, M., Barac, R., Kimber, M., Akrong, L., Johnson, S. N., Cunningham, C. E., Bennett, K., Ashbourne, G., & Godden, T. (2020). Advancing implementation frameworks with a mixed methods case study in child behavioral health. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 10(3), 685–704.

Breimaier, H. E., Heckemann, B., Halfens, R. J. G., & Lohrmann, C. (2015). The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR): A useful theoretical framework for guiding and evaluating a guideline implementation process in a hospital-based nursing practice. BMC Nursing, 14(1), 43.

Dy, S. M., Ashok, M., Wines, R. C., & Rojas Smith, L. (2015). A Framework to Guide Implementation Research for Care Transitions Interventions: Journal for Healthcare Quality, 37(1), 41–54.

Kerins, C., McHugh, S., McSharry, J., Reardon, C. M., Hayes, C., Perry, I. J., Geaney, F., Seery, S., & Kelly, C. (2020). Barriers and facilitators to implementation of menu labelling interventions from a food service industry perspective: A mixed methods systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 17(1), 48.

Moretto, N., Comans, T. A., Chang, A. T., O’Leary, S. P., Osborne, S., Carter, H. E., Smith, D., Cavanagh, T., Blond, D., & Raymer, M. (2019). Implementation of simulation modelling to improve service planning in specialist orthopaedic and neurosurgical outpatient services. Implementation Science, 14(1), 78.

Varsi, C., Ekstedt, M., Gammon, D., & Ruland, C. M. (2015). Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to Identify Barriers and Facilitators for the Implementation of an Internet-Based Patient-Provider Communication Service in Five Settings: A Qualitative Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 17(11), e262.